Industries & Manufacturing

TIP TIG Aerospace

Around 2009, I presented a seminar on the TIP TIG Weld Benefits to the Weld Industry. There was about 60 present including some SpaceX engineers. At the seminar, I placed great emphasis on the TIP TIG unique weld quality, productivity metallurgical and cost benefits, especially with common steels, alloys and alloy steels such as Stainless, Inconel, Duplex. Unfortunately however, when it comes to arc welding especially with semi-automated weld processes, it's not unusual in the high tech industries such as Defense, Aerospace, Power and Oil, to find many of the key weld decision makers will when it comes to arc welding will be stuck in the 20th Century. Also with the common lack of Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice expertise, and the "why change the way we have always done it" mentality, many individuals are reluctant to make major progressive weld process changes. ________________________________________________________________________________________ It should not have taken SpaceX engineers ten more years and millions of dollars wasted on unnecessary stainless weld issues, before their managers and engineers figured out, that to consistently attain the highest possible, manual arc weld quality, with the best possible stainless welded part mechanical properties, that needed to provide their welding workforce with the TIP TIG process. This simply reflects on the importance of weld engineering experience and expertise . Thanks to a process that provides the highest weld energy and lowest possible arc weld heat input. SpaceX rockets will one day to carry human beings to both the Moon and Mars. ________________________________________________________________________________________ TIP TIG is the first semi-automated and automated arc process that enables all position code quality welds to be made without concern for weld rework. This easy to use weld process will provide numerous weld quality benefits and extensive weld cost savings, however to drive a process change, it will usually take someone in the weld shop's front office who understands the importance of weld process ownership, someone who can recognize, as presented at this site, the unique weld quality, productivity and cost attributes of TIP TIG. ________________________________________________________________________________________ There is an old saying that you can lead a horse to water but you can't make it drink the water, and this applies to many engineers and managers in the global weld industry who are ignoring, or through their own ignorance, are not aware of the benefits of weld process control expertise, or the benefits attained from evolving weld technology such as TIP TIG. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Alloys and Aerospace are like bread and butter, also the most common arc weld process utilized in this industry is GTAW which is unfortunate. GTAW cannot produce the consistent, uniform optimum weld quality possible with TIP TIG. GTAW welds provide much higher weld heat into the parts producing inferior welded part mechanical and corrosion properties. GTAW requires unnecessary higher welder skills and on average, it takes three to four TIG welders to produce each hour, what one TIP TIG welder can produce. By the way, TIP TIG eliminates arc length sensitivity, so it's also easily automated. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: After a lifetime of weld application diversity in solving weld issues for over a 1000 companies in 13 countries, Emily Craig capped her weld career when she was requested to provide weld process and weld design improvement advice for the Orion Mars / Moon Space Shuttle, and she was also a key writer of the AWS MIG Specifications and created TIP TIG USA with her business partner Tom, and they both introduced the TIP TIG process to N. America, Australia and China.

TIP TIG Nuclear & Fossil Fuel

I was the weld manager at WSI, a USA company that was one of the largest providers of Nuclear and Fossil power plant weld repairs, and the world's largest cladding company using more than a million pounds a year of stainless and inconel MIG wires for pulsed MIG clad welds on boiler water walls. I provided WSI a pulsed MIG clad patent for this application that improved their weld quality with dramatic reductions in the MIG weld costs. I also spent a few years working on Nuclear Weld Repair projects for the Atomic Energy Nuclear Research facility Canada. And in my younger days I was in charge of Weld Quality during construction of the largest Fossil Fuel plant in Africa. ____________________________________________________________________________________ The weld decision makers in the Power industry have had a variety of arc weld choices for their manual welds, however GTAW and SMAW were most common, and with automated welds Cold and Hot Wire TIG was a common selection. However after 70 years things can change, and since 2009, in N.America, when the highest and most consistent arc weld quality with the best possible weld part metallurgy is the requirement, all power plant weld decision makers need to be aware that TIP TIG will provide far superior weld quality than DC TIG, Pulsed MIG and also Hot Wire TIG. From root to cap welds, With TIP TIG, one weld process is required for either manual and automated welds. _____________________________________________________________________________________ In contrast to manual DC TIG, the TIP TIG welder will each hour produce typically 200 to 400% more weld, and for automated welds, TIP TIG will outperform Hot Wire TIG. with less concern for arc length sensitivity issues. TIP TIG also allows dramatic reductions in Vee - J weld edge prep dimensions, which can dramatically reduce the weld time and costs in power facilities where with weld repairs, down time is always a critical factor. TIP TIG also provides the lowest possible weld heat input providing the least weld stresses, the least potential for weld cracking, the best possible mechanical and corrosion results, and always welds without distortion concerns. ____________________________________________________________________________________ For those managers concerned about finding skilled welders,TIP TIG enables a dramatic reduction in all position pipe welder skills. And for those that have never welded, with the proper process controls and best weld practice training, TIP TIG would require about 10 days training for the trainees to meet any ASME or AWS, all position, pipe welder qualification weld test. ____________________________________________________________________________________ By the way it would take about an hour to prove these claims. In an industry that over the decades has show its reluctance to weld process change, the implementation of this process will typically first require weld management and engineering leadership that has the ability to see the weld quality and cost benefits then drive this ten year old weld process change.

TIP TIG Defense

When it comes to manufacturing defense components or managing MIG and flux cored weld repairs on 270K tensile armored plate, as I did in Thailand, (left) for the Florida built Textron Stingray tanks, I had no choice but to use MIG and flux cord, and these weld processes with their excess weld heat input and inherent process issues as discussed in the weld process section, were in reality part of the weld issues generated with the armored plate weld repairs. Since 2009, managers and engineers should on any armored plate, high strength steels or for that matter any code quality weld applications appreciate an easy to use arc weld process that in contrast to DC TIG, Pulsed MIG and Flux Cored, will always provide the highest possible weld quality, with the lowest possible welded part heat. With TIP TIG, only one process is required from the smallest parts to any size weldments. TIP TIG. When reviewing TIP TIG, you won't attain the weld deposition that's possible with rutile flux cored wires, however with TIP TIG you can weld with dramatic reductions in Vee grooves, you likely won't require weld rework. TIP TIG one weld process, one weld wire, one gas and one weld procedure and two simple weld settings that is easy to use in any weld position for manual or automated welds. Most weld shops appreciate welds with no weld spatter, no weld cleaning, no weld grinding, no weld fumes, no distortion, no concern for weld stresses,and something most weld shops are not used to, no concern for weld rework. The only question I would have for defense manufacturing facilities, is why in 2020, on code quality welds are your engineers and managers still using the inferior DC TIG - Pulsed MIG or Flux Cored weld process?

TIP TIG Nuclear - Fossil Power - Refinery & Waste Management

One of my jobs was the Weld Manger at Welding Services. (WSI - Aquilex) in Georgia. WSI is a leading global provider of critical maintenance and repairs to the Nuclear, Fossil Fuel, Refinery industries. With my MIG weld process controls and best weld practice expertise, WSI requested that I develop a new automated Pulsed MIG clad PATENT for their boiler water wall cladding A patent that would extend boiler life and reduce the welding costs. Each year, WSI typically used approx a million pounds of Inconel and Stainless weld wires on power station boiler wall cladding. (picture right). It took less than three months and my weld patent not only improved the clad quality with improvements to boiler life longevity, the patent also reduced the expensive weld wires utilized by approx. 30%
_______________________________________________________________________________________ For at least seven decades, the manual weld processes of choice in all power plants has been DC TIG, SMAW and the Gas Shielded Flux Cored process. When automated welds were required, the Hot or Cold Wire process was considered. The power industry like most other high tech industries can be notorious in their resistance to weld change. It's notable that the working span of the average weld engineer is 30 years and I hope that someone will be aware in 2020, that more than a decade has passed since TIP TIG was introduced in N. America. While most engineers in this important industry may not be aware of TIP TIG, surely someone in the engineering departments would want to be aware of a weld process that is easier to use than TIG, will provide superior open root and fill pass quality on any pipe joints, vessels or plate welds and one welder using this process will provide in one hour, the same weld production as three to four TIG welders _____________________________________________________________________________________ FOR THE FIRST TIME IN ARC WELD HISTORY: Any metallurgist or weld engineer should be aware that this process is the only arc weld process that produces both the highest arc weld energy with the lowest welded part heat input for the best possible weld quality and mechanical and corrosion properties with any metals. Every engineer and managers when possible should hopefully want to promote the KIS method for all position welds and TIP TIG reduces all position welder skills. TIP TIG, one weld process for any manual and automated welds. TIP TIG one weld process from root to cap. TIP TIG one power source, one wire, one gas, one weld procedure and a process that will never require more than two common weld settings for most welds found in a Nuclear plant. And most important this is the only weld process capable of eliminating all position weld rework requirements that is associated with ASME. NAVSE. API and AWS code quality welds.

TIP TIG Oil & Nat Gas

I have worked on Refinery repairs and trained welders on Oil Platform repairs in Texas. I provided MIG and flux cored manual and automated welder training for Exxon / Imperial Oil, Nat Gas pipe welds at the Tar Sands Alberta. I provided automated Hot Wire TIG weld resolutions on Subsea Valves for Cameron in Leeds, UK. And I also provided Subsea pipe TIP TIG welds and clad inconel weld resolutions for CNOOCA, the largest Subsea oil producer in China.
_____________________________________________________________________________________ Pipes, valves, vessels, pumps, tanks and structural applications, manual or automated all position welds, or cladding made on a wide variety of alloys, steels and high strength steels. Welds and part metallurgy are always common concerns. However in this "why change the way we have always done it" industry in which the management and engineering focus is typically placed on revealing weld defects, rather than on the more logical cost effective engineering approach, of ensuring those responsible for the welds, have first the best possible weld process, and second, the weld process controls - best weld practice expertise to prevent weld defects. _____________________________________________________________________________________ With the high cost of many code quality welded parts, and the necessary costly weld rework, lets also not forget, as shown left, that one weld failure can lead to extensive risks to human life and dollars liability sometimes measured in the billions. So why after TIP TIG has been around for a decade, would any relevant manager or engineer in this industry select inferior arc weld processes such as TIG - Pulsed MIG - SMAW or flux cored, for their code weld applications?

TIP TIG Medical

When I worked in the medical equipment industry, apart from being the weld manager at a facility that built MRI equipment and also the weld manager at major company that made hospital beds and other medical equipment found in most hospital operating rooms, I found that in the engineering departments of these companies, that there was a severe lack of both management and engineering lack of manual and robot weld process ownership. Think about this for a moment and remember these companies like automotive companies (where the same lack of expertise is evident) are using MIG weld equipment that has had two weld controls that have hardly changed in 60 years. ___________________________________________________________________________________| Therefore, like many other front office engineers in this industry when they are having weld issues and want weld process advice, they are typically attached by an umbilical cord to their local weld sales rep, a person that typically has never run a weld shop. In this industry, stainless, aluminum and steel parts are common, and if the welds are not covered up high visual cosmetic weld quality is desired and weld distortion, weld spatter and visual weld surface porosity are usually a concern. ____________________________________________________________________________________ Also lets face it, what company that builds "medical equipment" would want the reputation of subjecting their workers to the carcinogenic Hexavalent Chromium weld fumes and grinding dust from stainless welds. Apart from being easy to learn and use, TIP TIG always attains the highest weld quality and lowest weld distortion, and grinding should not be required. As for weld fumes check out the videos and photos, TIP TIG produces the lowest possible arc weld fumes. In 2020. a Philips Healthcare or was it a GE Factory that built MRI equipment was desperate in its search to find skilled TIG welders. It's unfortunate, that the responsible managers and engineers did not recognize that with TIP TIG those skills were not required, and just in case anyone is interested, they could also not only improve their weld quality in but increase their hourly weld production by at least 300%.. Is the problem that these companies won't hear the above benefits from their local weld sales-rep. Or is the problem that the responsible engineers and managers lack the confidence to make dramatic weld changes. and the reality is, it's easier to get out of bed in the morning and do it "the way we have always done it"?

TIP TIG Food & Beverage

No fabrication shop would have considered anything but Pulsed MIG and flux cored to weld this large duplex fabrication that is a portion of a ship's beverage container that will hold juice. In this industry stainless and duplex are the norm, and high weld quality and part cleanliness are concerns. Weld distortion is major common and weld spatter and visual weld porosity are really frowned on. This company had previously used Pulsed MIG and gas shielded Flux Cored with air breathing weld masks to minimize the effects from the Chrome Hex weld fumes that were extensive from the pulsed MIG and flux cored process. The welder as you can see is now using TIP TIG, for the mostly 7 mm all position, fillet welds. As you note, the duplex weld fumes are not visible. spatter does not exist and distortion and weld rework is no longer a concern. Once weld shops in the food and beverage industry evaluate TIP TIG, they will find it can replace their pulsed MIG - DC TIG and flux cored welds, and welders will find all position welds are simple, no more than two weld settings required, and they have a process that can weld any metal, any thickness using either manual or automated welds.

TIP TIG Ship Building & the Navy

When I worked as the weld manager at a U.S. Shipyard, while discussing different weld methods with the yard's engineering manager, one of the first things he said to me was "why should we change the way we have always done it" This was from a manager in a yard that each each year exceeds the container ships and oil tanker weld repair budget by approx. 10 million dollars per-ship. The reality at this yard, was the front office engineers knew more about SMA welding than they did about the weld process controls and best weld practice requirements necessary for the best possible flux cored or MIG welds.

Shipyard weld quality is greatly influenced by the weld joints presented by the fitters, (often not to the design dimension and condition requirements). Weld quality is also influenced by the prime weld process selected which is gas shielded flux cored, a process that creates many inherent weld quality issues as discussed in the "process section. And the other prime influence on attaining the best possible and uniform weld quality with FCA, is the lack of flux cored process control - best practice training.
TIP TIG like flux Cored is also a semi-automated weld process and there are many weld applications in ship yards in which this process should be considered. TIP TIG will not replace flux cored, however when utilized in ship yards, TIP TIG will always provide the best possible manual or automated weld quality with the best opportunity for zero weld rework. TIP TIG allows weld VEE prep reductions that will dramatically reduce the amount of weld and weld consumables. Welding in a confined area, TIP TIG produces the lowest weld heat for the welders with no weld spatter and the lowest weld fumes. TIP TIG also dramatically reduces the all position skill requirements. Pipe shops, or welding turbine or nuclear components as found on naval vessels will all benefit from TIP TIG. When possible, if TIP TIG is used on any high strength steels and alloy steels, with the EN polarity and increased weld speeds, TIP TIG will ensure the lowest weld part heat the lowest distortion and stresses along with best possible mechanical or corrosion properties.
So there are two things that will in 2020, allow ship yards to provide progressive process changes that will impact the weld quality and productivity. [1] TIP TIG. [2] Ensure that with flux cored or MIG that all weld decision makers are provided Flux Cored, MIG and also TIP TIG "Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice" Training. This is very different from the typical ship yard welder training programs that frequently place their training focus on the welder skills rather than on the process controls.
My weld process control self teach or training resources, available at this site will enable both front office weld process ownership, and weld shop, weld quality and weld productivity optimization. When welders play around with weld controls and the weld equipment, process and consumables utilized are not attaining the maximum potential, and when the best possible weld processes are not utilized this should be a wake up call for front office personnel.

Tip Tig Best Pipe3

FURTHER COMMENT FROM EM CRAIG. WHY WOULD ANY WELD SHOP IN A NAVY YARD OR AT ANY DEFENSE OR AEROSPACE COMPANY SELECT A WELD PROCESS THAT INFLUENCES THE COMMON WELD ISSUES THAT OCCUR WITH MOST ALLOY  AND ALLOY STEELS?   For example, if you are a key weld decision maker in a Naval yard, give some thought  to the alloy and weld quality, corrosion and  mechanical concerns that you face daily with welded parts found on  submarines, frigates and aircraft carriers. You may be looking at diverse weld applications such as welding missile firing tubes or be responsible  pipe welds in the sub’s  nuclear reactor or welds on turbines . You may be involved in applications such as titanium pipe welds, or with stainless pipes that carry fuel or welds, or what about turbine or propeller welds. Its likely that you will  have concerns  for corrosion – crevice corrosion, carbide precipitation – distortion, impact properties, ferrite levels,  shrinkage stresses, hot or cold cracking, yield  and ductility properties and yet it’s likely your  weld shop  is using TIG – Pulsed MIG and Flux Cored that  influence  all  these weld issues, while for the last decade ignoring TIP TIG, the one weld process in which these issues should not result. 

101104 N 0000x 001


Mr. J Geurts, the Assistant Navy Secretary for Research, Development and Acquisition and responsible for a budget of around  200 billion dollars spoke at a Defense One Tech Summit.  Its not word for word but almost.

Mr. Geurts. “The US Navy can’t build our future planned fleet and attain the 355-ship fleet goal required by our national strategy, unless it finds ways to dramatically reduce both the ships and submarine build and repair costs”.   Today in North America when we look at our general lack of industry & yes Navy management & engineering Process Ownership, we need to go way beyond labor costs as the root cause of our mfg,  job demise. Perhaps we also should spend a little more effort to examine our engineering and fabrication Process Expertise

Response from Em.
What Mr. Geurts  stated above in  2019,  is what I have been saying  in my articles, web site, books, work shops and with my process control training resources for at least  30 years. Of course I love his twenty first century logical message,  but also  I hope MR. Guerts recognizes that one the most stead fast organizations in the industrial world that is most resistant to process change, would likely to be the NAVY. And if the Navy wants progressive change from his suppliers, then it’s not unreasonable to believe that the Navy should lead by example. Remember any weld changes on code quality applications  will always be qualified so using the common excuse that something has been proven over time has in reality  no engineering merit.

Note from Em: My businesses partner Tom, and I after bringing TIP TIG to N.America, introduced TIP TIG to Australia in 2009, Australia has always had a concern for lack of skilled welders that would be required on defense projects. The Australian Navy tested TIP TIG welds on sub hull explosion tests with great success, and it was rapidly accepted by the Navy as a prime arc weld process of choice for its new 50 billion dollar Attack submarine contract.


TIP TIG Mining

Early in my career I was a Weld Training Manger for ESCO and I went around the US and Canada to mines and provided SMAW - FCAW and MIG training for the mine maintenance personnel. Also as the Robot Weld managers at ABB Robot Div. N. America, I established the preliminary robot weld data when it was decided to weld the small Caterpillar truck shown on the left. Over the years i provided assistance and process control - best practice training at companies such as Terex, Caterpillar, John Deere Volvo, Massey Ferguson, and Caterpillar. The common primary issue at all locations, was the welder training was inadequate and weld process control and best weld practices was none existent not only in the weld shops, but also in the weld shop front office. In this industry, when it comes to weld and the frequent weld cladding applications, there will often be weld issues generated with wear resistant and high strength steels and alloys. With TIP TIG, companies now have the ability to provide the highest manual and automated weld quality, with the lowest weld dilution and welded part heat input. When it comes to changing the way managers and engineers approach their common arc weld processes, for those that want to drive up their weld quality and drive down weld costs, take a moment with my weld process controls resources below.

TIP TIG Heat Exchanger Manufacturing

Some of the most difficult manual welds are made made on a tube to sheet / plate,  and I know because apart from the numerous manual TIG tube welds I produced, I have also provided automated TIG welds and made these welds with robots using  pulsed MIG.

While many companies in this industry when making the tube to plate welds  would think it’s logical to  go out and purchase costly automated TIG equipment to get the best consistent  weld uniform results, however, as you see on the right, TIP TIG manual tube to plate welds are easy to make,  quicker to do, and the manual TIP TIG weld quality attained should  always be  superior to any automated TIG welds.

Also please note,  as TIP TIG enables the ability  to produce higher deposition rates than both DC TIG or Hot Wire TIG,  therefore instead of two or sometimes three weld passes that may be required on the Heat Exchange welds, companies will find with TIP TIG  they would likely do it with one weld pass and if they want to waste money they can also do the welds with automated TIP TIG .  O well as I am well  aware, I  know in all the industries mentioned, the front office has decision to make and as we are all aware,  you can take the horse to the water but you cant make it drink it.

TIP TIG Investment Castings

One of the  most costly metal products  manufactured  are heat sensitive  Investment Casting. Global foundries have never had a manual arc weld process that provides both the highest possible weld quality with the lowest possible  welded part heat input.  I would expect any  foundry or  engineering manager working with these applications to want to utilize TIP TIG,  especially on a  product as shown in the video. 

When I provided the first TIP TIG seminar around 2009, one of the attendees was an engineer from a CA aerospace company that was responsible for the cast engine blocks for  jet fighter planes.  A week later he sent one of his cast rejects to us and came back to view this demo. It took him less than an hour to realize that for the first time in the aerospace / investment cast industry, he now had  an easy to use weld process that would not only provide the highest possible weld quality, but also  the lowest possible weld heat into his castings.

All Industries Benefit from the worlds best Pipe Process

In any weld position, as TIP TIG provides the highest possible weld energy and fluidity, weld shops would expect the lowest potential for lack of  weld fusion defects.

As TIP TIG with the highest weld energy thats protected by an INERT gas, the weld shop should expect the lowest  weld porosity or oxidation formation that  can result in no more grinding, no more wire brushing, just the cleanest possible welds.

If you can move your hands side to side, those who have never welded pipe can be taught in a few days  the required TIP TIG welder skills and practices utilized for any code required  pipe weld positions. Too add to the simplicity, typically the same  2 weld settings is all that is required for  any pipe applications, any pipe wall thickness and  with any steels and alloys.

With EN polarity and increased weld speeds, TIP TIG  enables the lowest possible welded part heat, always providing  the smallest possible weld HAZ, the lowest possible weld /part stresses, the lowest possible part distortion. the best possible mechanical and corrosion properties  & the least crack sensitivity. 

There is no longer a need to use TIG or Stick for the pipe root and another more cost effective arc weld process for pipe or plate fill passes. With TIP TIG, you have one easy to set  power source,  you will require no more than two weld settings that can be applied to all welds. One weld wire. One gas. One weld procedure and weld any metal, any thickness, any position. No weld rework and  practical and cost effective on any metal, size, or application.

As TIP TIG welds  are made in an argon protected  inert  plasma, and TIP TIG enables the use EN of polarity with increased weld speeds especially with the  pipe fill passes, this enables on any clean parts,  the lowest possible weld fumes. 

Tip Tig China AAround 2009,  I introduced TIP TIG to one of the largest oil companies in China. Apart from being pleased at how easy it was to use, their welders were also pleased to learn that the chrome content from the  inconel weld wires they utilized  was less of a concern. Note how the weld fumes were not evident even when two of them were TIP TIG welding the  sub sea pipe in a confined area of a ship,  without any  fans and exhaust equipment. By the way the manager also appreciated the zero rework and production rates attained.


Aircraft Carrier Arabraham

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF WELD PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING. A 2016. E-Mail to me from a foreman at General Dynamics, NASSCO (Electric Boat) shipbuilding.  Dear Emily.  Having instituted your Weld Process Control – Best Weld Practice Flux Cored and MIG training programs at our NASSCO GD facility, I wanted to let you know the following results. At this location we are recovering from extensive, costly poor weld performance by qualified NAVSEA weld personnel on a major, US Navy CVN contract. I was hired in the middle of this contract which unfortunately like many naval yards has endless weld problems. Thanks to your process control – best practice training programs, we have greatly reduced our flux cored weld problems. And with reviewing your MIG & flux cored process control data, we finally were able to understand that our  “NAVSEA approved weld procedures were not optimum.” We were recommending  very low Flux Cored and MIG weld parameters (outside your optimum minimum recommended range), and not using the best weld practices.  We are now using your recommended weld parameters and practices and are now engaged in changing both our flux cored and MIG weld procedures also to your recommendations.  Regards and thanks again.  Foreman GD. NASSCO.